INGESTION METHODS

In the existing CBD supplement and cannabis market, there is a wide variety of products available which can be administered in a multitude of ways. The method of administration of any compound is extremely important as it can alter the uptake, distribution and duration (of effectivity) of the compound. Consequently this can dictate how effective the compound may be.

The most common route cannabinoid supplements are administered is orally. This is the most user friendly way in which consumers can administer the product, cannabinoids can be added to food products or can be ingested easily with the use of capsules or oils.
However, oral administration has a relatively low bioavailability compared with other methods.

When cannabinoids pass through the liver a process called first past metabolism happens. is the main reason for that cbd oil has a relatively low bioavailability when taken orally. The enzymes in the digestive system, gut wall enzymes, other bacterial enzymes break the cbd oil down so our body absorbs it in a different way creating long chain cannabinoids with a lot longer half-life (as opposed to taking sublingually under the tongue) way before the CBD reaches the bloodstream. When CBD passes through the liver it breaks the cbd oil down into over 100 different metabolites, this process contributes to the beneficial entourage effect and stays in the bloodstream for a lot longer period of time. We always advise to take cannabinoid oil orally in capsules as well as sublingually (under the tongue) to create a much more powerful entourage effect within the body. This has been scientifically proven to target certain endocannabinoid deficiencies within the body

There are a few ways the oral bioavailability can be enhanced. When administered with long-chain triglycerides, a recent study has shown that taking CBD supplements with long-chain triglycerides in return can bypass first pass metabolism of the liver allowing a higher bioavailability rate than if taken orally on its own.

 

 


CAPSULES

The most common route cannabinoid supplements are administered is orally. This is the most user friendly way in which consumers can take the product, cannabinoids can be added to food products or can be ingested easily with the use of capsules or oils.
However, oral administration has a relatively low bioavailability compared with other methods.
When cannabinoids pass through the liver a process called first past metabolism happens. is the main reason for that cbd oil has a relatively low bioavailability when taken orally. The enzymes in the digestive system, gut wall enzymes, other bacterial enzymes break the cbd oil down so our body absorbs it in a different way creating long chain cannabinoids with a lot longer half-life ( as opposed to taking sublingually under the tongue) way before the CBD reaches the bloodstream. When CBD passes through the liver it breaks the cbd oil down into over 100 different metabolites, this process contributes to the beneficial entourage effect and stays in the bloodstream for a lot longer period of time. We always advise to take cannabinoid oil orally in capsules as well as sublingually (under the tongue) to create a much more powerful entourage effect within the body. This has been scientifically proven to target certain endocannabinoid deficiencies within the body.

There are a few ways the oral bioavailability can be enhanced. When administered with long-chain triglycerides, a recent study has shown that taking CBD supplements with long-chain triglycerides in return can bypass first pass metabolism of the liver allowing a higher bioavailability rate than if taken orally on its own.

INHALATION/VAPING

More often associated with recreational users of cannabis, cannabinoids administered through inhalation have a much higher and faster bioavailability into the bloodstream when compared to taking it orally. This has been observed in a clinical study’s. In these study’s when THC was inhaled, it had a much faster but shorter acting effect on the users, compared to them taking it orally. Given the similarity in the absorbability of THC and CBD, bioavailability data correlates between the two.
The observation in this study noted that the effects of oral administration had a slower onset but lasted for a lot longer period of time.
This is extremely relevant for the way CBD is administered into the bloodstream. Meaning the dramatic increase in bioavailability seen through the inhalation of cbd. We recommend the inhalation method if you want a fast onset of action.


SUBLINGUAL

Administered sublingually the cbd oil is held underneath the tongue for up to 80 seconds allowing the blood vessels to absorb the cannabinoids fast and efficiently. The benefits of consuming the CBD oil sublingually under the tongue allowing the absorption process to bypass the digestive system and liver metabolization, This allows the compounds to pass into the bloodstream rapidly, interacting with the endocannabinoid system with a fast onset of action. For those seeking for quick effects, choosing sublingual CBD oil is the ideal choice for the consumer.
Our cbd oils, paste extracts and concentrates, are designed for the sublingual method of application. Once administered the oil can easily be held underneath the tongue allowing the active ingredients to be absorbed by the blood vessels efficiently into the bloodstream before being swallowed.


SUPPOSITORIES

 

The suppository method of administration is generally favoured in situations where the oral method is not possible, such as in scenarios where users have trouble swallowing or suffer from nausea and vomiting for example.

Currently, there is a lack of data specifically calculating the bioavailability of CBD when administered as a suppository. Bioavailability data from numerous studies assessing THC showed that the suppository method of administration had approximately double the bioavailability as compared to the oral method. Another study found the bioavailability of THC from a suppository formulation to be 13.5%. Out of the three veins in the rectum, only one of them (the superior rectal vein) flows into the liver. Consequently there is only a partial first pass metabolic effect from this method of administration, and higher bioavailability is reported (as more CBD ends up in the blood circulation). As a result, suppositories have a faster onset of availability of CBD as compared to oral means of administration (oils, capsules).

One highly relevant study compared the effects of CBD delivered orally and rectally in mice. The results from this study showed that CBD delivered rectally was significantly faster than CBD delivered orally.


 


INHALATION VS ORAL: WHICH IS MORE EFFECTIVE?

In a study comparing three methods of administration of cannabinoids (oral, inhaled and intravenous), it was found that the oral route provided the longest period of “availability". This is contrary to the fact that the oral route produced the lowest plasma concentration out of the three.

Although the inhaled method can provide a more rapid onset, it also has a shorter availability (approximately 1-3 hours) as it is cleared rapidly. This is because the plasma concentrations peak extremely fast and CBD is eliminated from the bloodstream following first order elimination kinetics (rate of elimination is proportional to the amount of CBD in the body).

On the other hand, the oral route of administration is slowly released into the bloodstream. It maintains low concentrations in the blood over a longer period of time, and is therefore eliminated at a slower rate (slower elimination). Therefore it has a longer lasting availability (approximately 7 hours).

WHAT IS THE BEST ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION?

In terms of bioavailability, the inhalation and sublingual routes are the most efficient in delivering CBD direct to the bloodstream. This can be important for some users that require a fast onset of action and a high level of CBD in the bloodstream.
However there isn’t a ‘one size fits all

Oral administration [capsules] may be effective in terms of comfort and ease, and to satisfy the needs of users who only require a small concentration of CBD in the systemic circulation for a longer period of time.


OVERVIEW

ORAL

PROS: Long lasting, simple to administer, other metabolites active.

SUBLINGUAL

PROS: Long lasting, slightly higher levels in bloodstream than swallowing, simple to administer.
CONS: Taste, relatively slow to become active.

RECTAL

PROS: High bioavailability, long lasting
CONS: No bad taste, not always practical.

INHALATION/VAPOURISING

PROS: Quick to become available, taste can be tailored/varied, simple to administer.
CONS: Not long lasting, not always practical.